Issues in the Rebinding of Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts: Facing the Future, Conserving the Past, and Creating Useable Objects for Today

Illuminated manuscripts present unique conservation problems due to the fragility of their illustrations, both in terms of preservation and accessibility. This article explores the issues inherent in the decision to rebind or keep intact a medieval illuminated manuscript, and generates a rebinding model based around these issues. The article evaluates the conservation policies of a university, a museum, and a private collector in order to compare and contrast their approaches to rebinding, which depend on how they see the work being used in the future. In addition, firsthand accounts and views from the decision makers and the conservators who actually carry out the projects are considered. By synthesizing the evaluations and accounts, a widely applicable binding model is developed, and its structure outlined. An illuminated manuscript is then evaluated using this model as a case study.

"Collect, Preserve, and Communicate”: Jeremy Belknap’s Republic of Letters and the Problems of Early American History Writing

This article focuses on Jeremy Belknap’s design of an archival network in early national America. When Belknap founded the Massachusetts Historical Society in 1791, its mission was “collecting, preserving, and communicating the Antiquities of America.” The early history of archival institutions showed that paper documents were susceptible to damage and loss at any moment, and saving endangered documents was foremost among other historian’s projects. The whole idea of Belknap’s “Republic of Letters” was not to stash away documents in the vaults, but to publish and share their duplicate copies as widely as possible, and thereby to preserve the documentary contents communally. Once the materials were shared and secured, the next step was to unify them into a narrative whole. With an ever-increasing number of printed copies, the task of historians was to reimagine history over and over. The same goes for today’s hyper-diffusion of digitized information. The benefit of online archive is blessing to modern scholarship to be sure, but its immensity somehow overwhelms individual efforts to manage the data overload. The task is to weave one story after another out of growing gigabytes of documents.

Preparing Teachers and Students in New Literacies: Closing the Digital Gap

Preparing students to read in a digital world requires more than simply acquiring devices for all. For teachers and students, a major paradigm shift is needed—one in which both learner and teacher use technology to create information products as part of the process. Teachers must allow students to use technology to produce materials as part of the learning process.